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Schematic of LNG single containment flat bottom tank part 2 (EN 1473)

Flat Bottom Storage Tank – Different Types and Its Features

In my third LNG project, I had a chance to meet two different LNG storage tank vendors. One vendor produce vacuum insulated  storage tank (pressurized type) and the other one produce flat bottom storage tank (atmospheric type).

During the meeting I got several terms of  LNG flat bottom storage tank types, such as single containment tank, double containment tank, and full containment tank. What was that?

In this post I want to share you different types of LNG flat bottom storage tank and its special features. Read More

How To Choose LNG Regasification System – AAV, ORV, IFV, and Other Unique Vaporizing Unit

Until now, I’m still dealing with LNG regasification system. I knew now that I don’t quite understand how to choose regasification method. And I understand that technology is getting better, so you have many options which type of regasification to choose, which one is the best.

I’ve studied several type of vaporizers, such as ambient air vaporizer, both natural draft and forced draft, open rack vaporizer, and intermediate fluid vaporizer, using glycol-water or propane. I had a correspondence with several vendors regarding that vaporizers. However, I haven’t encountered with submerged combustion vaporizer or intermediate fluid vaporizer with Rankine cycle. So, I can’t imagine how those vaporizers really work.

In the past, I remembered I encountered with Indirect Fired Water Bath Heater (personally, this term is really long, I can’t easily remember :D). But the application is not to regasify LNG, but to increase temperature of natural gas. In other word, it is gas post treatment after leaving vaporizer.

In this post, I want to share you summary of everything I learned until now about how to choose correct vaporizer for your condition. And I also want to share you some type of unique vaporizers (for me it is unique). Read More

Rollover in LNG Storage Tank

Rollover in LNG Storage Tank

I think reading BS EN 1160 makes my writing ideas grows. As a follow of of this post (LNG Basics: Understanding Its Typical Properties), I want to share you what I read and browsed about Rollover in LNG Storage Tank.

Rollover in one of physical phenomena explained in BS EN 1160, other than Rapid Phase Transition (RPT) and Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE).

Rollover refer to process whereby large quantities of gas can be emitted from an LNG storage tank over a short period of time. How this could happen? Read More

Difference between Base Load, Peak Load, and Load Following Power Plant

Yesterday I had a discussion about our current project. The discussion was actually not only limited to that topic, however a topic in general: power plant. When one has plan to build a power plant, he must know operational profile of the power plant. Is it used for base load, peak load, or follower load ? What does it mean?

In this picture I show you the difference between those three. Read More

calculation holding time of LNG in storage tank

Predicting Holding Time of LNG in Storage Tank Without Venting

In this post, we use vacuum insulated type LNG storage tank when we don’t want to deal with boil-off gas handling. The storage tank have design pressure as high as 6-10 barg. When we store LNG in the LNG, boil-off gas will be generated due to heat leak to tank. Increasing temperature of LNG will increase total volume of LNG and vapor in the tank, thus increasing its pressure.

This phenomena leads to a simple question, “How long can LNG storage tank keep the vapor before PSV works?” Read More

LNG Basics: Understanding Its Typical Properties

For those who starts working with LNG, I recommend to read BS EN 1160 – Installations and equipment for liquefied natural gas – general characteristics of liquefied natural gas. The standard covers almost all LNG characteristics that you need to know, such as properties of LNG, evaporation of LNG, spillage, ignition, containment, and other physical phenomena. I think it will be nice to share some of them in this post.

There are three things at least you need to know about LNG before knowing other things.


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Cold-keeping system (

LNG Recirculation Requirement

In LNG receiving terminal, where LNG is pumped from LNG carrier to onshore LNG storage tank, we have to provide one line to intermittently circulate LNG through unloading lines. This is called LNG recirculation line or keep-cool line.  The function of this line is maintain cryogenic condition of the unloading line during holding mode. Unloading activity is conducting intermittently. Sometimes we need to wait for a week or even a month to the next LNG unloading. During this time, there is a possibility of increasing temperature in the line. To prevent that, we need to circulate LNG in unloading line. Read More