Sometimes, I feel involving in EPC project was such a chaos, totally messed up. The advantages of involving in low-cost project, such as feasibility study, is we are working in a small group of people. It is very easy to coordinate or to communicate, even to share information or transfer knowledge. EPC project is totally different. It involves many departments and involves other people outside the company, such as vendors. Read More
Since I have involved in the current project, which is EPC project, I always want to make some short writing and simple guideline to create piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) for several equipments, such as pump, tank, vessel, compressor, and so on. This post will be my first post on simple guideline related to configuration of pump in piping and instrumentation diagram.
Figure above reprsents typical piping and instrumentation diagram of pump. Pump should have:
- Pump Symbol. Make sure you use proper pump symbol. As for example above, I use centrifugal pump. Check your P&ID legend
- All the nozzles should be correctly represented with size and flanges. Generally, the suction and discharge nozzles on the pump are smaller than suction and discharge line sizes. Appropriate reducer / expander to be clearly indicated in such cases.
- Strainer. In the example above, I install Y-strainer. The strainer is used to separate debris from the liquid
- Check valve. Check valve shall be installed to prevent liquid flow reversal with the succession of pumping
- Globe valve. Globe valve installed at discharge line to regulate the flow of liquid
- Pressure gauges are normally to be provided on suction and discharge line
- Inlet and outlet lines are the next to be drawn up. Line number, material class, size, pressure rating, etc. is to be correctly assigned to each of the lines.
- Drains and vents to be provided on the suction / discharge lines
I think the issue in energy saving is getting hotter day by day. A lot of seminars and training were held to create awareness among people to take action on energy saving.When I was pursuing master degree, I took bioenergy as theme of my thesis. I was getting aware on energy depletion, so that it couraged scientists in the world to develop alternative energy to replace petroleum oil. Honestly, the idea of saving energy is pretty new for me although the background is the same as developing alternative energy.
Increasing Demand, Decreasing Supply
Global primary demand is projected to increase by 53% between 2004 and 2030 to over 17 million TOE (ton oil equivalent) – an average annual rate of 1.6%. Over 70% of the increase comes from developing countries. The power generation sector contributes close to one-half of the global increase (source).
Fossil fuel is the dominant source of energy, accounting for 83% of the overall increase in energy demand. For example, oil demand grows by 1.3% annually, reaching 116 million barrel per day in 2030.
No one doubts that fossil fuels are subject to depletion. The availability of oil worldwide has already peaked (source).
One report said that the amount of proved oil left in the world was 1.15 trilion barrels. It would take 41 years for this to be completed. As for gas, the remaining proved reserves was 176 trilion cubic meters or 67 years’ worth of supplies (source).
Increasing Energy Price
Energy price is expected to increase in short and long-term basis. There are several drivers of energy price. The drivers are
- Market power (source)
For example, due to declining reserves, oil and gas costs will increase.
Due to the reasons above, the idea of saving energy is very important.
As already described in previous posts (such as here and here), I was involved in EPC project. Creating piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) is one of my responsibility. I think P&ID is a collection of information and collaboration of every discipline, such as process, mechanical, electrical, and instrumentation. Once I think creating P&ID is easy enough, but I change my mind then. It is not.
I revised my P&ID (water treatment plant, fuel supply system, and wastewater treatment plant) several times. I am not quite sure if I am a kind of diligent person, but I am sure creating “perfect P&ID” requires a lot of works and patience. I sometimes think there’s nothing wrong with my P&ID. However, if you let someone, for example your colleagues, your boss, or someone with more experiences than you to check your P&ID, you will laugh at yourself. It happened to me. My P&ID was far from perfect. I understand now. Perfect P&ID requires continuous improvement. Read More
My current job is to select vendor who will supply thermal oil heater. It is pretty hard work for me because I did not involve in thermal oil heater design since the beginning. Unlike water treatment plant which I deeply learnt since the beginning, I even don’t have any idea about thermal oil heater, so I need to learn harder. Since I am not a fast learner, I write this post as the methode (which I like the most) for me to understand what thermal oil heater is and how to select appropriate thermal oil heater. Read More