## Applications of Ball Valves and Their Examples

In this post, I want to share with you the applications of ball valves and their examples. In my experience, many oil and gas projects use ball valves a lot. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using ball valves, and what are their applications?

Ball valves are frequently selected for process and aggressive services containing hydrocarbon oil and gas. Ball valves are used for on/off purposes only, not for flow control (throttling). Read More

## Understanding Three Layers of Integrated Control and Safety Systems

In this post, I want to share with you about three layers of integrated control and safety systems. The layers consist of Basic Process Control System (BPCS), alarm, and Safety Instrumented System (SIS). I heard about these terms of BPCS and SIS quite late in my career as process engineer. I hope those do not happen to you

## How to Calculate Partial Volume of Horizontal Vessel with Ellipsoidal Heads

In this post, I want to share with you how to calculate partial volume of horizontal vessel with ellipsoidal heads. Basically, the horizontal vessel consists of cylinder and two heads. Thus, the total volume will be:

Total volume = volume of liquid in two heads + volume of liquid in cylinder
Total volume = 1/6 π K1 D3 + 1/4 π D2 L

Where:

K1 = 2 b/D

b, D, and L are function of vessel geometry. Please see figure below. Read More