When fluid flow through a restriction, for example valve or orifice, pressure drop occurs adiabatically. If changes in kinetic or potential energy are negligible, which causes no change in enthalpy at the inlet and at the outlet, then we have ΔH = 0. Some properties of throttling process are expressed in figure below.
In previous post, I shared about how to size two-phase horizontal separator. In this pos, I want to share to you how to size two-phase vertical separator.
Schematic of Two-Phase Vertical Separator
Figure below is schematic drawing of two-phase vertical separator.
Separator is the initial processing vessel in any production facility. Therefore, it should be designed properly to prevent reduction of capacity of the entire facility.
Separators are classified into two-phase and three-phase separator. Two-phase separators are used to separate gas from the total liquid stream. Meanwhile, three-phase separators are used to separate gas from crude oil and water component.
Separators are designed in either horizontal, vertical, or spherical configuration. In this post, I want to share to you how to size two-phase horizontal separator.
Schematic of Two-Phase Horizontal Separator
Figure below is schematic drawing of two-phase horizontal separator.
You may already read my blog about how to size air compressor and instrument air capacity. Please check this link if you have not read the article. I hope you find it useful.
As a continuation of the post, I want to share you how to size capacity of compressed air receiver.
Compressed air receiver is used as buffer and storage medium between the compressor and air consumers.
A common formula used to size compressed air receiver is as followed: Read More
Aims of primary treatment of wastewater is to separate suspended solids and greases from wastewater. What does primary treatment of wastewater remove? Sedimentation remove both organic and inorganic suspended solids. In addition, skimming, as part of sedimentation tank, remove grease, oil, scum, and floating solids.
Primary treatment of wastewater includes primary sedimentation (also called clarification), microscreen, Imhoff tanks. In most facilities, primary treatment is used as preliminary step ahead of biological treatment. Read More
In earlier posts, we learned sources of wastewater, which are domestic wastewater, industrial wastewater, and infiltration/inflow. In this post, I want to share to you how wastewater is treated.
Wastewater is treated at wastewater treatment plants before it is permitted to be discharged to the environment/water bodies. Basic function of wastewater treatment is to speed up the natural processes of water purification. Read More
Where does wastewater come? This basic question shall be answered if we want to design a wastewater treatment system. Source of wastewater, its characteristics, and its flow rate, will influence the type of technology to treat the wastewater.
Components that make up the wastewater depend on the type of collection systems. Urban wastewater that contribute to a wastewater treatment is originated from the following three main resources:
- Domestic (also called sanitary) wastewater. This type of wastewater is discharged from residential districts, commercial districts, institutional facilities, or recreational facilities.
- Industrial wastewater. Wastewater which predominantly consists of industrial waste.
- Infiltration is water entering a sewer system including service connections, defective pipes, pipe joints or manhole walls.
- Inflow is the water discharged into a sewer system from roof leader, cellar, yard and area drains, foundation drains, cooling water discharges, drains from springs and swampy area, manhole covers, cross connections from storm and combined sewers.
After a quite long absence of updating this blog, I want to begin this March’s post with refreshing our knowledge about wastewater treatment. Let’s begin with one fundamental question: what is wastewater treatment?
In general, wastewater treatment is a process converting wastewater into effluent that can be discharged back into the environment. This terms contains at least four keywords, which are wastewater, effluent, converting process, and environment.
Yesterday I had a really nice yet short conversation with one of my best friend about biofuel status in Indonesia. Why did we talk about this subject? It is because I wanted to participate in one of biofuel feasibility study tender. My friend I talked about has been working in this area for a quite long time. So, I wanted to know her opinion about this subject. Read More
Natural gas dehydration unit is one of important facilities in natural gas processing. Purpose of water vapor removal in natural gas are to prevent gas hydrates formation and to reduce corrossion in pipeline. There are several methods of gas dehydration, which are absorption with liquid desiccant, adsorption with solid desiccant, and cooling below initial dew point. Selection of the method is depend on water content in feed gas and required dew-point in dry gas.
One of the most popular methods of natural gas dehydration is absorption process employing diethylene glycol or triethylene glycol as dehydration medium or desiccant. It is a mature process having been used for over fifty years. Triethylene glycol has emerged as the most popular chemicals in recent years due to several favorable desiccant characteristics. Those characteristics are high affinity for water vapor, non-corrosive, ease of generation, and low chemical losses. Read More