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Hydrostatic Test for Boiler

I just got an opportunity to witness hydrostatic test for boilers in my recent EPC project. Hydrostatic test is the most common procedure used to qualify newly manufactured pressure pressure. The purpose is to make sure here is no leak in the boiler.

The procedure was quite simple yet important. Pressure parts shall be subjected to a hydrostatic test pressure which at every point is at least equal to:

1.5 times the MAWP (Maximum Allowable Working Pressure) for ASME section I code.

1.3 times the MAWP for ASME section VIII Div. I code

(The MAWP may be assumed to be the same as the design pressure)

The design pressure of my boilers is 10 barg. When this test applied, the QC engineer increased the pressure of boiler to 10 barg and hold it for 15 minutes. They checked visually the internal of boiler if there’s a leak. Unfortunately, there’s no digital recorder available to record the pressure of boiler during the test. So, we needed to check by our naked eyes the pressure gauge.

After 15 minutes, the increased the pressure to 15 barg at hold it for an hour. After that, they decreased the pressure to 10 barg again, hold it for 15 minutes, then decreased again to 1 barg. The inspection was done visually.

Assessment of Cooling Tower Performance

Yesterday, I just got an opportunity to inspect some of cooling tower equipment, such as motors, fans, fan stack, low oil level switch, and so on. It was great. I got more understanding about the system, which is very valuable for me as young chemical engineer.

Before I do the inspection, I tried to learn something about cooling tower. I found from this link about how to assess a cooling tower. In this post I want to give you an example of my own cooling tower.

There are several parameters to assess the performance of cooling towers. Note: CT = cooling tower; CW = cooling water Read More

Calculation of Water Spray for Fire Protection of Vertical Vessel

I just got an assignment from my boss to calculate fire protection of vertical vessel. NFPA 15 (National Fire Protection Association 15) is a standard for water spray fixed system for fire protection.

Definition

As per NFPA 15, water spray refer to the use of water in a form of having a predetermined pattern, particle size, velocity, and density discharged from specially designed nozzle devices. Read More

Design Criteria of Wastewater Treatment Plant

treatment plants_clip_image001
http://www.lacsd.org/wastewater/wwfacilities/moresanj.asp

As already explained in previous post, design criteria is guideline values for designing new wastewater treatment facilities which is determined through research and laboratory scale model studies as well as operational experience. In this post I want to discuss more about the design criteria of wastewater treatment plant. It is important to note that the design calculations are usually based on certain assumptions. Hence, it is important  to have a clear understanding about the concept of design criteria and the significance in determining capacities and dimensions and wastewater treatment units. Read More

Design Philosophy of Wastewater Treatment Plant

http://www.wedotanks.com/anaerobic-aerobic-wastewater-treatment-plant.asp

After we discussed about water treatment plant, I want to share my new task about designing wastewater treatment plant. The explanation in this post will be quite simple and not really deep because I also still learn the fundamentals of designing water treatment plant. But after I discussed with one wastewater treatment plant vendor, I got more understanding about the plant and basic consideration in designing what equipment or process required in wastewater treatment plant. Read More

How to Evaluate Technical Specification of Water Treatment Plant Package Unit and Get Cheaper Price

In EPC project, the activity after engineering is procurement. When we want to procure something, for example water treatment package unit, boiler, fire fighting pump, or else, we usually invite several qualified vendors to bidding and get the price. We usually find the price of several equipments quoted by certain vendors is so high but the technical specification is about the same. I will share my experience about how to evaluate technical specification of Water Treatment Plant package unit and to get cheaper price. I take Water Treatment Plant as a case in this post because I feel I have more knowledge in this area than in other areas.

Evaluating Multimedia Filter Package Unit

Multimedia package unit in Water Treatment Plant is a pretreatment used to remove total suspended solid. It consists of two to three kinds of filter, such as silica sand, activated carbon, and gravel. Some water treatment plant vendor may offer additional carbon filter in separate vessel (so the pretreatment consists of two vessel, multimedia filter vessel and carbon filter). The function of carbon filter mainly is to remove iron and manganese. Iron is a big problem when it clogs reverse osmosis unit so that we need to remove it first.

I list some potential cost reduction in multimedia package unit in water treatment plant. You can discuss with the vendors about this cost reduction possibility without sacrificing the quality and quantity of treated water.

  • Makes sure the capacity of multimedia filter and carbon filter is correct. Due to mistakes or something, some vendors may offer larger capacity than what is enough. The lower the capacity, the smaller the tank, the lower the media, and of course the lower the price
  • If the vendors offer multimedia filter and carbon filter, you need to negotiate the possibility to reduce the amount of media. For example, if vendor offer two kinds of media in multimedia filter (for example silica sand and activated carbon), you may ask to get silica sand in one multimedia filter and activated carbon in carbon filter.
  • Check the thickness of tank painting thickness. If the pressure of the vessel is not so high, you can ask to get thinner painting thickness. It will reduce some cost.
  • Check the instrumentation. The most important instrumentation for multimedia filter is pressure indicators. You need to install them to get the indicator when the multimedia filter need to be backwashed. Sometimes, the vendors offer safety valve or air venting. You can discuss the importance of this instrumentation.
  • Use existing pump to backwash multimedia filter, don’t buy dedicated one. I reccommend to use existing pump to backwash multimedia filter and not but the dedicated pump to wash multimedia filter

Evaluating Reverse Osmosis Package Unit

Reverse Osmosis water treatment plant is a filtration process use to purify water. It uses to reduce the total dissolve solids and chemical impurities from water. In water treatment plant, reverse osmosis unit is constructed as skid mounted type, consisting of the RO feed pump, cartridge filter, RO high pressure pump, reverse osmosis membrane and pressure vessels, control valves, piping, and all necessary accessories and instrumentation.

Fluid PhaseFluid Condition/DescriptionTube SideShell Side
LiquidProcess Fluid1-2 m/s
Max 4 m/s
0.3-1 m/s
Water1.5-2.5 m/s0.3-1 m/s
VaporVacuum50-70 m/s50-70 m/s
Atmospheric10-30 m/s10-30 m/s
High pressure5-10 m/s5-10 m/s

Before we discuss about how to reduce reverse osmosis package unit therefore reduce overall cost to buy water treatment plant package unit, there are several technical aspect you need to make sure when you read the technical specification of reverse osmosis.

  • Make sure you give correct water feed specification and correct desired water specification (what is the SDI and TDS of your feed water, what is the desired SDI and TDS?). Membrane element will be selected based on feed water salinity, feed water fouling tendency, required rejection, and energy requirement.
  • Make sure vendors simulate reverse osomosis membrane system using appropriate desired water parameter

Click here if you want to read more about designing membrane reverse osmosis in water treatment plant.

This is a short list of potential cost reduction of reverse osmosis water treatment plant.

  • Use RO feed pump as cleaning pump. I found some vendors do not offer dedicated cleaning pump in CIP cleaning system. They prefer to use RO feed pump as cleaning pump. I just found a reference that mentioned cleaning pump for CIP should be low pressure pump to minimize production of permeate and to avoid dirt redeposition on membrane element. The material should be SS316 or non metallic composite plastics.
  • Take a look at instrumentations. I personally do not reccommend this method. The vendors may offer several instrumentations that seems too many. However, we need to pay attention carefully to their experiences. They usually have several reasonable experiences about the importance of installing the instrumentation. For example, the vendor offer you two units conductivity meter at inlet of reverse osmosis unit and at permeate line. You may think one unit conductivity meter at permeate line is sufficient to determine the quality of treated water is at desired level. In my opinion, you will wonder what the initial water conductivity is and to what extent it’s reduced.

Evaluating Mixed Bed Polisher Package Unit

In water treatment plant, mixed bed polisher is usually installed after reverse osmosis unit when the water quality of less than 1 microohm conductivity is required or higher degree of safety is required to ensure water quality (source). Another source mention that the mixed bed should be about 0.10 microSiemens/cm at 25 degree C and 0.010 to 0.020 mg/L as SiO2 (10 to 20 ppb).

In mixed bed polisher, anion and cation are joined in a single vessel. The two resins are intimately mixed by agitation with compressed air.

I found mixed bed polisher usually contributes the highest price among other water treatment plant package unit because it operates automatically. I have ever asked one vendor about the possibility to change the operation mode of mixed bed polisher from automatic to manual. They said the cost will reduce very significantly.

When you read technical specification of mixed bed polisher for your water treatment plant, you also need to consider the consumption of instrument air because the system uses instrument air during regeneration. You need to check if the consumption is still sufficient with the production of instrument air, unless you need to buy blower.

Although it operates “manually”, you still need alarm if the conductivity increases the level that required regeneration or you need to present the value of flow, conductivity, and pH of treated water in central control room.

Sometimes I found some vendors offer regeneration pump for mixed bed. You may discuss with them about the possibility to  use ejector instead of pump so that the cost will reduce.

I hope this summary will help you determine the best price of water treatment plant package units and acceptable water quality. 🙂

More about Water Treatment Plant: Methods to Remove Taste and Odor

Last week and today I met some Water Treatment Plant vendors to discuss about technical clarification. Some engineers and my boss have discussed the possibility to reduce the money to purchase water treatment package and make the system more simple. The main purpose the technical clarification meeting was to inform vendors what we want in our Water Treatment Plant, to ensure that is possible, and to ask for quotation, of course.

My boss is a very intelligent chemical engineer therefore I learn much about Water Treatment Plant from him. The vendors also told us about technical consideration in their water treatment plant configuration so that we understand a bit the reason behind their configuration selection. Of course we want to choose vendor who can offer best price and acceptable water quality (mainly for boiler feed water). Read More

How to Calculate Jockey Pump Capacity in Fire Fighting System

Main_fire_pumps_with_Jockey
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_pump

About two days ago, my colleague asked me about inconsistency in our design basis of fire fighting system of our on-going project. In our design basis, we stated that the capacity of jockey pump is 50 gpm (the capacity of main fire pump is 500 gpm for electric motor fire fighting and diesel engine fire fighting, respectively). But vendor who supply fire fighting package stated that they will supply jockey pump with the capacity of 25 gpm. It would be a problem if the Construction Management (the one who monitors and review the product of the project) notices this. The question that will be come up is are you sure the capacity of jockey pump (which is 25 gpm) is enough in case there is a fire? The question rises in my mind is

How to calculate jockey pump capacity in fire fighting system? Read More

Water Treatment Plant: Typical Configuration and Processes

Since May 2012, I have been involving in an EPC (Engineering, Procurement, and Construction) project. In my opinion, it is a big project because the core business of my company are (but not limited) feasibility study, plant assessment, turn around, plant re-activation, etc.

The first job I need to perform was to create Piping and Instrumentation Diagram of Water Treatment Plant. It was quite challenging task because this is the first time I deal with P&ID and also the first time I deal with Water Treatment Plant. Read More

Understanding Steam Boiler and Its Process

Yesterday, I got an opportunity to attend technical confirmation meeting with steam Boiler vendor. Unlike previous meeting with pump vendor, our senior chemical engineer and also our general manager of operation who are also chemical engineer, attended too.

Last time I had a curiosity to have full understanding about Boiler, its configuration, process philosophy, and manufacturing philosophy. Attending this meeting was one of free learning to understand those issue. At least it stimulated my curiosity again. Read More