## How Air-Diaphragm Pumps Work

Air-diaphragm pumps (double diaphragm pumps) are one type of positive displacement pump. Their main applications are to transfer fluid, low pressure spray, and other low-pressure applications requiring less than 120 psig. They do not meet either ANSI or API standards and are most often used because of their profitability and ability to run on compressed air.

## General Selection Guidelines of Rotary Pumps

In this post, I want to share to you general selection guidelines of rotary pumps.

Rotary pumps are positive displacement pumps. However, they are different from reciprocating pumps because they have relatively steady and non-pulsating flow. Rotary pumps are generally selected to handle very high viscosity fluid or if the flow rate is too low to be handled economically by other pumps.

There are several common applications of rotary pumps:

• Transferring gasoline, fuel oil, diesel fuel into tanks or day tanks
• Supplying fuel oil to burners
• Running lubricant through the bearings of process machinery, turbines, reduction gears, and engines.

Before we jump into the general selection guidelines of rotary pumps, I think we need to understand several terms that related to rotary pumps, such as slip, volumetric efficiency, and mechanical efficiency, and of course several types of rotary pumps. Read More

## Handy Method to Estimate Pump Power Requirement

In this post I want to share a handy method to estimate pump power requirement. Pump power is a function of these parameters:

• Flow rate
• Delivered pressure
• Pump efficiency

## How to Estimate Pump Efficiency

In this post I want to share to you how to estimate pump efficiency. An equation was developed by Carl Branan, author of the Process Engineer’s Pocket Handbook. Pump efficiency can be estimated by using equation below:

Where:

Eff.         = Pump percentage efficiency

G             = Flow (GPM) Read More

## How to Calculate NSPH of Pump with Examples and Illustrations

NPSH of pump (net positive suction head) should be calculated/predicted in the beginning of pump sizing. The purpose is to check if the pump will work appropriately. Liquid pressure will lower right in inlet of pump impeller. If pressure reduction is lower than vapor pressure, liquid phase will change to vapor phase. The impeller rapidly collapses vapor bubbles which cause cavitation and damage.

In this post I will share you how to calculate NPSH available, which is net positive suction head calculated based on system arrangement. The value of NPSH available (NPSHA) shall be greater than NPSH required (NPSHR), which is a function of pump and to be specified by pump manufacturer.

NSPH of pump is calculated as follow:

NPSH available (ft, m) = absolute pressure (ft, m)vapor pressure (ft, m) –  line loss (ft, m) ± elevation difference (ft, m) Read More

Since past two days, people still celebrate new year, so office activity has not started yet. That means I actually still in holiday too. But I want to update this blog while enjoying my holiday. I cannot (or in a mood) to create full article. So, instead sharing full article, in this post, I want to share you centrifugal pump sizing spreadsheet.

I created pump sizing spreadsheet for my first LNG project. The inspiration came from Pump Sizing Calculation from CheCalc. But I made it better.

I think you should download this spreadsheet because it offers better features that online calculation fro CheCalc.

• The spreadsheet is simple. You just input the data in dark yellow highlight
• Pump sizing is calculated based on rated flow rate. If you want to size based on normal flow rate, input 0 in percentage of rated flow rate
• Pressure drop components is comprehensive, including pipe loss, fitting loss, and equipment loss
• Pump data results is comprehensive, including:
• Suction pressure
• Discharge pressure
• Differential pressure
• Hydraulic power
• Pump BHP
• Rated power (calculated)
• Rated power (selected) : based on commercial output motor power
• NPSHA
• NPSHR
• Shut in pressure

## How to Properly Size Discharge Pressure of Pump

When sizing discharge pressure of pump, we need to consider at least two things: target pressure at destination point and pressure loss from source point to destination point. How if we have two different destination points? How do we properly size pump discharge pressure?

In this post I want to share you simple method to size discharge pressure of pump when you have more than one destination point. Read More

## Understanding Pumps Terminology

As a process engineer, I sometimes dealing with pumps. I usually feel confuse when I read pump specification or graphs offered by vendors. Here in this post, I want to share you some knowledge about pumps terminology that you may hear before what don’t really understand the meaning.

I create mind map for several most-often-used pump terminology that come to my mind. I’m sorry if the arrangement is a bit messy :D.

## Reciprocating Pump P&ID Configuration

Reciprocating pump is a class of positive displacement pump which includes piston pump, plunger pump, and diaphragm pump. It is often used where a relatively small quantity of liquid to be handled and where delivery pressure is quite large. Priming is not required because it is positive displacement pump. Reciprocating pumps have lower efficiency compared to centrifugal pump.

API 674 – Positive Displacement Pump – Reciprocating covers minimum requirements for reciprocating positive displacement pumps for refinery application. The standard also covers piping and instrumentation required for the pump. Read More

## Hydraulic Pump Calculation

Yesterday I just finished doing hydraulic pump calculation for one of a project in my company. The purpose of the calculation was to determine suction pressure, discharge pressure, and pump differential head.

Pump calculation procedure is very simple.

First, you need to define pump operation condition. It includes fluid temperature, fluid specific gravity, fluid viscosity, pump normal capacity and design capacity.

Second, check your Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) carefully. In this step you need to calculate pressure drop due to pipe line and fittings in the suction and discharge of pump. You need to list fittings and calculate pressure loss due to the fittings.

Total suction head = line loss + loss due to accessories + suction head

Do the same thing as for discharge head.

Differential head is calculated by this formula