After a quite long absence of updating this blog, I want to begin this March’s post with refreshing our knowledge about wastewater treatment. Let’s begin with one fundamental question: what is wastewater treatment?
In general, wastewater treatment is a process converting wastewater into effluent that can be discharged back into the environment. This terms contains at least four keywords, which are wastewater, effluent, converting process, and environment.
Wastewater is water that is no longer needed or is no longer suitable for use. Simple example of wastewater is domestic wastewater, which we found in everyday life. Domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater consists mostly grey water, blackwater, soap and detergent, and toiler papers. This wastewater cannot be used suitably because it contains toxin, chemicals, and pathogen that may harm our environment.
Our water bodies cannot accept all types of wastewater. Thus we need to convert the wastewater into a kind of water that water bodies can accept. Treated or untreated wastewater from wastewater treatment plant is called effluent.
Water from our environment will be used for various purposes. For example, the water is used for domestic supply, industrial supply, irrigation, aquaculture, and energy irrigation. Quality of water used for these purposes will be different.
Studies for the wastewater treatment implementation must address clearly the following aspects:
- Environmental impact studies on the receiving bodies
- Treatment objectives
- Treatment levels and removal efficiencies
The environmental impact studies is required to evaluate compliance with water the receiving body standards.
The removal of pollutants during treatment in order to reach a desired quality or required discharged standard is associated with the concepts of treatment level and treatment efficiency.
Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal