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Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Source

Carbon dioxide is one of key greenhouse gases. Primary source of carbon dioxide emission is the usage of fossil fuel. In addition, carbon dioxide can also be emitted from direct human-induced impacts on forestry and other land use, such as through deforestation, land clearing for agriculture, and degradation of soils.

In this post, I want to share global carbon dioxide emissions by source or by sector and by region. Data used in this post come from with data source from CAIT (Climate Analysis Indicator Tools), which compiles data from peer-reviewed and internationally recognized greenhouse gas inventories developed by other government agencies worldwide.

In 2016, estimated worldwide carbon dioxide emissions total nearly 37 Giga tons. This number includes the effect of land use and forestry.

Global carbon dioxide emissions including land-use change and forestry
Global carbon dioxide emissions including land-use change and forestry

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Schematic of two-phase horizontal separator

Preliminary Sizing of Two-Phase Horizontal Separator

Separator is the initial processing vessel in any production facility. Therefore, it should be designed properly to prevent reduction of capacity of the entire facility.

Separators are classified into two-phase and three-phase separator. Two-phase separators are used to separate gas from the total liquid stream. Meanwhile, three-phase separators are used to separate gas from crude oil and water component.

Separators are designed in either horizontal, vertical, or spherical configuration. In this post, I want to share to you how to size two-phase horizontal separator.

Schematic of Two-Phase Horizontal Separator

Figure below is schematic drawing of two-phase horizontal separator.

Schematic of two-phase horizontal separator
Schematic of two-phase horizontal separator

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Preliminary Sizing of Compressed Air Receiver

You may already read my blog about how to size air compressor and instrument air capacity. Please check this link if you have not read the article. I hope you find it useful.

As a continuation of the post, I want to share you how to size capacity of compressed air receiver.

Compressed air receiver is used as buffer and storage medium between the compressor and air consumers.

A common formula used to size compressed air receiver is as followed: Read More

Weir trough

Primary Treatment of Wastewater

Aims of primary treatment of wastewater is to separate suspended solids and greases from wastewater. What does primary treatment of wastewater remove? Sedimentation remove both organic and inorganic suspended solids. In addition, skimming, as part of sedimentation tank, remove grease, oil, scum, and floating solids.

Primary treatment of wastewater includes primary sedimentation (also called clarification), microscreen, Imhoff tanks. In most facilities, primary treatment is used as preliminary step ahead of biological treatment. Read More

Wastewater Treatment – How Wastewater is Treated

In earlier posts, we learned sources of wastewater, which are domestic wastewater, industrial wastewater, and infiltration/inflow. In this post, I want to share to you how wastewater is treated.

Wastewater is treated at wastewater treatment plants before it is permitted to be discharged to the environment/water bodies. Basic function of wastewater treatment is to speed up the natural processes of water purification. Read More

Where Does Wastewater Come From

Where does wastewater come? This basic question shall be answered if we want to design a wastewater treatment system. Source of wastewater, its characteristics, and its flow rate, will influence the type of technology to treat the wastewater.

Components that make up the wastewater depend on the type of collection systems. Urban wastewater that contribute to a wastewater treatment is originated from the following three main resources:

  • Domestic (also called sanitary) wastewater. This type of wastewater is discharged from residential districts, commercial districts, institutional facilities, or recreational facilities.
  • Industrial wastewater. Wastewater which predominantly consists of industrial waste.
  • Infiltration/inflow.
    • Infiltration is water entering a sewer system including service connections, defective pipes, pipe joints or manhole walls.
    • Inflow is the water discharged into a sewer system from roof leader, cellar, yard and area drains, foundation drains, cooling water discharges, drains from springs and swampy area, manhole covers, cross connections from storm and combined sewers.

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What Is Wastewater Treatment  

After a quite long absence of updating this blog, I want to begin this March’s post with refreshing our knowledge about wastewater treatment. Let’s begin with one fundamental question: what is wastewater treatment?

In general, wastewater treatment is a process converting wastewater into effluent that can be discharged back into the environment. This terms contains at least four keywords, which are wastewater, effluent, converting process, and environment.

Sewage wastewater

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