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The Difference between Gross Heating Value, High Heating Value, Net Heating Value, and Low Heating Value

One day I found a nice and short article about the difference between terminology used to express heating values: Gross Heating Value (GHV), High Heating Value (HHV), Net Heating Value (NHV), and Low Heating Value (LHV).

As mentioned in my previous post about how to convert high heating value (HHV) to low heating value (LHV), the difference between those terms is if energy used to vaporize water include in the value.

During combustion, fuel react with oxygen molecules to form carbon dioxide, water, and to release heat. The heat released is called heat of combustion. Some of the heat released are used to vaporize existing moisture in the fuel and the water product.

Because all combustion reactions occur at temperatures above water boiling point, both existing water in fuel and water product are in vapor state after combustion. In a bomb calorimeter, the water in vapor state (existing as fuel moisture and water product) is cooled and condensed to room temperature. Therefore, the heat of condensation is recovered. All the heat of combustion are measured by the bomb calorimeter. The total heat of combustion measured by a bomb calorimeter per unit mass is called “high heating value” (HHV) or “gross heating value” (GHV). Read More

Conversion Higher Heating Value (HHV) to Lower Heating Value (LHV)

As a process engineer dealing with gas project, I usually involve in these terms, higher heating value (HHV) and lower heating value (LHV). Do you know the differences between these two?

In simple words, higher heating value (HHV) includes energy used to vaporize water. While lower heating value (LHV) excludes energy used to vaporize water.

Which water?

Water contained in the original energy form or created during the combustion process.

If we put them into equation, then it will be like this.

Relationship between HHV and LHV
Relationship between HHV and LHV

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Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Source

Carbon dioxide is one of key greenhouse gases. Primary source of carbon dioxide emission is the usage of fossil fuel. In addition, carbon dioxide can also be emitted from direct human-induced impacts on forestry and other land use, such as through deforestation, land clearing for agriculture, and degradation of soils.

In this post, I want to share global carbon dioxide emissions by source or by sector and by region. Data used in this post come from with data source from CAIT (Climate Analysis Indicator Tools), which compiles data from peer-reviewed and internationally recognized greenhouse gas inventories developed by other government agencies worldwide.

In 2016, estimated worldwide carbon dioxide emissions total nearly 37 Giga tons. This number includes the effect of land use and forestry.

Global carbon dioxide emissions including land-use change and forestry
Global carbon dioxide emissions including land-use change and forestry

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Coal Bed Methane for the Future of Gas Reserves in Indonesia

Coal bed methane for the future of gas reserves in Indonesia is one topic explained in BUMI Bulletin published by SKK Migas (Indonesia Special Task Force for Oil and Gas). This topic is very interesting because I never considered coal bed methane (CBM) as source of gas until now. CBM is hydrocarbon formed and kept in source rock, it does not move or migrate. In Indonesia, CBM reservoir is very wide and its resource and reserve is large.

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Renewable Energy Sources: Solar, Wind, and Hydropower

Renewable energy is increasing around the world. This is because energy from fossil fuel becomes scarce. In Indonesia, based on RUPTL 2018, government plant to increase geothermal energy source from 5% in 2018 to 12% in 2025. The percentage of other renewable energy is 0% in 2018 to 2% in 2025.

What is renewable energy? Renewable energy is generated from sources that naturally replenish themselves and never run out.

Renewable energy could be alternative to combat with climate change because it does not generate direct greenhouse gas emission. The only emission that renewable energy generate is indirect greenhouse gas emission, which are from installation, operation, and maintenance. Read More

LPG vs Natural Gas

In Indonesia, people use LPG or natural gas to cook foods or to produce hot water for bath. In my city, natural gas is less popular than LPG. However, in other area, people are starting to switch from LPG to natural gas. It is because the government program to utilize it as city gas.

Let’s take a closer look at which one is better from a cost, usability, and safety point of view. Read More

Small Scale Geothermal Power Plant is My Project of the Year

It’s been a while since the last post I wrote in this blog. I always, always want to have a fresh start and be consistent in this way. So, here I am, updating this blog! Yeay!

I’ve learnt many things during this year. In this very first post of the year, I want to share you what projects I have done and on-going at the moment. Hopefully you can enjoy it.

At the beginning of the year, I had a small scale geothermal power plant. It was my very first geothermal power plant project. So, I was very excited and of course… worried. Read More

LNG Regasification Vessel Requirement based on DNV Classification Notes No. 16.3

In previous posts, I shared some of onshore LNG terminal and regasification system. How about offshore LNG regasification system? Does it have any differences with onshore regasification system? In this post, I want to share you practical guidance of offshore regasification vessel from DNV (Det Norske Veritas) Classification Notes No. 16.3. DNV Classification Notes No. 16.3 is applicable for all vessels engages in LNG regasification.

Regasification vessel is intended to regasify LNG then delivered the gas to pipeline gas grid, through a Submerged Turret Buoy or through dedicated export manifold. The Classification Notes specifically explains regasification systems and offloading systems for natural gas through submerged turret buoy offshore or through dedicated gas unloading manifolds. Read More